A Sketchy List of Leaders for Travelers
Revised February 12, 2007
Historical Figures before Christ
- Cleisthenes (507 BC) When the Spartans attempted to sieze control of Athens, the people of Athens revolted forcing the Spartans to retreat to the Acropolis and surrender. The people recalled Cleisthenes from exile and asked him to build the first city ruled by the people, the world's first democracy.
- Pericles (490-429 BCE) Athenian leader who is given credit for founding Athenian democracy. During his reign, Athens is fortirfied and many of the great buildings at the Acropolis are built.
- Socrates (470-399 BC) Philosopher and political dissident who had a divine calling to teach. His most famous pupil was the philosopher Plato. In 399 he was executed for not worshipping the gods recognized by the government of Athens and for corrupting the young.
- Plato (427-347 BC) Philospher and founder of the Academy of Athens. He was the teacher of Aristotle and wrote many "dialogues" in which ideas of moral behavior were discussed.
- Phillip of Macedonia (338) Most famous as father of Alexander the Great, he built a military power to the north of Athens and defeated the Athenians and the people of Thebes.
- Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) Macedonian (found north of modern Greece) leader who extended the Greek empire into Egypt and across Asia to India.
- Ceasar Augustus: (63 BC - 14 AD) Heir to Julius Ceasar, Augustus was by birth Julius's nephew. Rising to the throne after a civil war, Augustus consolidates his power, builds a standing army and sees the expansion of the Roman Empire to modern Spain, southern Germany, Switzerland and parts of the Czech Republic. He deals with uprisings against Roman rule in the Balkans.
- Tiberius (42 BC - 37 AD) Stepson of Augustus, Tiberius ruled Rome during a period of relative peace and prosperity. His reign ends with his murder and he is replaced by Caligula.
Leaders born during the First Millenium
- Caligula (14 - 41 AD) The nephew of Tiberius and the son of the popular military leader, Germanicus, reigned with a violent hand. His mental illness is sometimes traced to a serious illness and fever shortly after he assumed the throne. Whatever, his short reign was marked by brutal slaughter and other acts of lunacy, ending with assassination by a military officer.